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The southern half of the country had been colonised in by the United Kingdom as British New Guinea. With the Papua Act , the UK transferred this territory to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia , which took on its administration.
In contrast to establishing an Australian mandate in former German New Guinea, the League of Nations determined that Papua was an external territory of the Australian Commonwealth; as a matter of law it remained a British possession.
The difference in legal status meant that until , Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia.
These conditions contributed to the complexity of organising the country's post-independence legal system. Approximately , Japanese, Australian, and US servicemen died.
This was later referred to as "Papua New Guinea". The natives of Papua appealed to the United Nations for oversight and independence.
The nation established independence from Australia on 16 September , becoming a Commonwealth realm , continuing to share Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.
It maintains close ties with Australia, which continues to be its largest aid donor. A renewed uprising on Bougainville started in and claimed 20, lives until it was resolved in The native peoples felt they were bearing the adverse environmental effects of the mining, which poisoned the land, water and air, without gaining a fair share of the profits.
The government and rebels negotiated a peace agreement that established the Bougainville Autonomous District and Province. The autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president in , who served until his death in He was succeeded by his deputy John Tabinaman as acting president while an election to fill the unexpired term was organised.
James Tanis won that election in December and served until the inauguration of John Momis, the winner of the elections. As part of the current peace settlement, a non-binding independence referendum was held, between 23 November and 7 December The referendum question was a choice between greater autonomy within Papua New Guinea and full independence for Bougainville, and voters voted overwhelmingly Numerous Chinese have worked and lived in Papua New Guinea, establishing Chinese-majority communities.
Chinese merchants became established in the islands before European exploration. Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May The initial spark was a fight between ethnic Chinese and indigenous workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company.
Native resentment against Chinese ownership of numerous small businesses and their commercial monopoly in the islands led to the rioting.
The Chinese have long been merchants in Papua New Guinea. Various nations from Oceania, Australia , the Philippines and Timor-Leste immediately sent aid to the country.
The constitutional convention, which prepared the draft constitution, and Australia, the outgoing metropolitan power, had thought that Papua New Guinea would not remain a monarchy.
The founders, however, considered that imperial honours had a cachet. Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are unusual among Commonwealth realms in that governors-general are elected by the legislature, rather than chosen by the executive branch.
The Prime Minister heads the cabinet , which consists of 31 MPs from the ruling coalition, which make up the government. The current prime minister is James Marape.
Candidates for members of parliament are voted upon when the prime minister asks the governor-general to call a national election, a maximum of five years after the previous national election.
In the early years of independence, the instability of the party system led to frequent votes of no confidence in parliament, with resulting changes of the government, but with referral to the electorate, through national elections only occurring every five years.
In recent years, successive governments have passed legislation preventing such votes sooner than 18 months after a national election and within 12 months of the next election.
In December , the first two of three readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months.
This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government.
Elections in PNG attract numerous candidates. The general election was the first to be conducted using LPV. In there was a constitutional crisis between the parliament-elect Prime Minister, Peter O'Neill voted into office by a large majority of MPs , and Sir Michael Somare , who was deemed by the supreme court in a December Opinion, to retain office.
The stand-off between parliament and the supreme court continued until the July national elections, with legislation passed effectively removing the chief justice and subjecting the supreme court members to greater control by the legislature, as well as a series of other laws passed, for example limiting the age for a prime minister.
The confrontation reached a peak, with the Deputy Prime Minister entering the supreme court during a hearing, escorted by some police, ostensibly to arrest the Chief Justice.
There was strong pressure among some MPs to defer the national elections for a further six months to one year, although their powers to do that were highly questionable.
The parliament-elect prime minister and other cooler-headed MPs carried the votes for the writs for the new election to be issued, slightly late, but for the election itself to occur on time, thereby avoiding a continuation of the constitutional crisis.
The crisis was tense at times, but largely restricted to the political and legal fraternity, plus some police factions.
The public and public service including most police and military stood back. It was a period when, with increased telecommunication access and use of social media notably Facebook and mobile phones , the public and students played some part in helping maintain restraint and demanding the leadership to adhere to constitutional processes.
They insisted on having the elections so that the people could say who should be their legitimate representatives for the next five years.
Under a amendment, the leader of the party winning the largest number of seats in the election is invited by the governor-general to form the government, if he can muster the necessary majority in parliament.
The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where parties do not have much ideology, involves considerable horsetrading right up until the last moment.
The unicameral Parliament enacts legislation in the same manner as in other Commonwealth realms that use the Westminster system of government.
The cabinet collectively agree government policy, then the relevant minister introduces bills to Parliament, depending on which government department is responsible for implementation of a particular law.
Back bench members of parliament can also introduce bills. Parliament debates bills, and if approved the bill is forwarded to the Governor-General for Royal assent, following which it becomes law.
All ordinary statutes enacted by Parliament must be consistent with the Constitution. The courts have jurisdiction to rule on the constitutionality of statutes, both in disputes before them and on a reference where there is no dispute but only an abstract question of law.
Unusually among developing countries, the judicial branch of government in Papua New Guinea has remained remarkably independent, and successive executive governments have continued to respect its authority.
The "underlying law" Papua New Guinea's common law consists of principles and rules of common law and equity in English  common law as it stood on 16 September the date of independence , and thereafter the decisions of PNG's own courts.
The courts are directed by the Constitution and, latterly, the Underlying Law Act , to take note of the "custom" of traditional communities.
They are to determine which customs are common to the whole country and may be declared also to be part of the underlying law.
In practice, this has proved extremely difficult and has been largely neglected. Statutes are largely adapted from overseas jurisdictions, primarily Australia and England.
Advocacy in the courts follows the adversarial pattern of other common-law countries. This national court system, used in towns and cities, is supported by a village court system in the more remote areas.
The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. Papua New Guinea supported Indonesia 's control of Western New Guinea :  the focus of the Papua conflict where numerous human rights violations have reportedly been committed by the Indonesian security forces.
It consists of three wings. The Land Element, a land force consisting of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment , a small special forces unit, a battalion of engineers, and three other small units primarily dealing with signals and health, as well as a military academy, is concerned with defence of the nation on land.
The Air Element is a small, underfunded aircraft squadron consisting of two utility aircraft, with another three on order, two leased helicopters, and two trainers once they are delivered.
Its present purpose is transportation for the other military wings. The Maritime Element is a small navy consisting of four Pacific-class patrol boats, three ex-Australian Balikpapan-class landing craft , and one Guardian-class patrol boat.
One of the landing craft is used as a training ship. Three more Guardian-class patrol boats are under construction in Australia, to replace the old Pacific-class vessels.
The main tasks of the Maritime Element are patrol of inshore waters and transport of the Land Element. Papua New Guinea has such a large Exclusive Economic Zone that patrols by the small Pacific-class patrol boats, which are often unserviceable due to underfunding, are ineffective, so the Maritime Element is heavily reliant on satellite imagery for surveillance of its waters.
This problem will be partially corrected when all of the larger Guardian-class patrol boats enter service. Papua New Guinea is often ranked as likely the worst place in the world for violence against women.
The Sorcery Act imposed a penalty of up to 2 years in prison for the practice of "black" magic , until the Act was repealed in Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Papua New Guinea.
Papua New Guinea is divided into four regions , which are not the primary administrative divisions but are quite significant in many aspects of government, commercial, sporting and other activities.
The nation has 22 province -level divisions: twenty provinces, the Autonomous Region of Bougainville and the National Capital District.
Each province is divided into one or more districts , which in turn are divided into one or more Local-Level Government areas. Provinces  are the primary administrative divisions of the country.
Provincial governments are branches of the national government as Papua New Guinea is not a federation of provinces.
The province-level divisions are as follows:. In , Parliament approved the creation of two additional provinces: Hela Province , consisting of part of the existing Southern Highlands Province , and Jiwaka Province , formed by dividing Western Highlands Province.
The government set 23 November  as the voting date for a non-binding  independence referendum in the Bougainville autonomous region.
Located north of the Australian mainland, the country's geography is diverse and, in places, extremely rugged. A spine of mountains, the New Guinea Highlands , runs the length of the island of New Guinea , forming a populous highlands region mostly covered with tropical rainforest , and the long Papuan Peninsula , known as the 'Bird's Tail'.
Dense rainforests can be found in the lowland and coastal areas as well as very large wetland areas surrounding the Sepik and Fly rivers.
This terrain has made it difficult for the country to develop transportation infrastructure. Some areas are accessible only on foot or by aeroplane.
Papua New Guinea is surrounded by coral reefs which are under close watch, in the interests of preservation.
The country is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire , at the point of collision of several tectonic plates. There are a number of active volcanoes , and eruptions are frequent.
Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis. The mainland of the country is the eastern half of New Guinea island, where the largest towns are also located, including Port Moresby capital and Lae ; other major islands within Papua New Guinea include New Ireland , New Britain , Manus and Bougainville.
Papua New Guinea is one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall , which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland.
The border between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia was confirmed by treaty with Australia before independence in The maritime boundary with Australia was confirmed by a treaty in Maritime boundaries with the Solomon Islands were confirmed by a treaty.
Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate , forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea also called Sahul or Meganesia.
It is connected to the Australian segment by a shallow continental shelf across the Torres Strait , which in former ages lay exposed as a land bridge , particularly during ice ages when sea levels were lower than at present.
Consequently, many species of birds and mammals found on New Guinea have close genetic links with corresponding species found in Australia.
One notable feature in common for the two landmasses is the existence of several species of marsupial mammals , including some kangaroos and possums , which are not found elsewhere.
Papua New Guinea is a megadiverse country. As a consequence, they have their own flora and fauna; in particular, they lack many of the land mammals and flightless birds that are common to New Guinea and Australia.
Australia and New Guinea are portions of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana , which started to break into smaller continents in the Cretaceous period, 65— million years ago.
Australia finally broke free from Antarctica about 45 million years ago. All the Australasian lands are home to the Antarctic flora , descended from the flora of southern Gondwana, including the coniferous podocarps and Araucaria pines, and the broad-leafed southern beech Nothofagus.
These plant families are still present in Papua New Guinea. The Central Range is much younger and higher than the mountains of Australia, so high that it is home to rare equatorial glaciers.
New Guinea is part of the humid tropics, and many Indomalayan rainforest plants spread across the narrow straits from Asia, mixing together with the old Australian and Antarctic floras.
Three new species of mammals were discovered in the forests of Papua New Guinea by an Australian-led expedition. A small wallaby, a large-eared mouse and shrew-like marsupial were discovered.
The expedition was also successful in capturing photographs and video footage of some other rare animals such as the Tenkile tree kangaroo and the Weimang tree kangaroo.
At current rates of deforestation , more than half of Papua New Guinea's forests could be lost or seriously degraded by , according to a new satellite study of the region.
On 25 February , an earthquake of magnitude 7. As of 1 March there were 31 reported deaths, and that number was expected to rise.
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine including a large portion of the world's major tuna stocks , and in some parts agriculture.
The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors including serious law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title makes it difficult for outside developers.
Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, ICT and access to finance.
Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output , with palm oil now the main agricultural export.
Former Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilise the kina , restore stability to the national budget, privatise public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville following the agreement which ended Bougainville 's secessionist unrest.
The Morauta government had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans.
Significant challenges face Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare , including gaining further investor confidence, continuing efforts to privatise government assets, and maintaining the support of members of Parliament.
In March , the United Nations Development Programme Policy called for Papua New Guinea's designation of developing country to be downgraded to least-developed country because of protracted economic and social stagnation.
This economic growth has been primarily attributed to strong commodity prices, particularly mineral but also agricultural, with the high demand for mineral products largely sustained even during the crisis by the buoyant Asian markets, a booming mining sector and by a buoyant outlook and the construction phase for natural gas exploration, production, and exportation in liquefied form liquefied natural gas or "LNG" by LNG tankers LNG carrier , all of which will require multibillion-dollar investments exploration, production wells, pipelines, storage, liquefaction plants, port terminals, LNG tanker ships.
A second major project is based on initial rights held by the French oil and gas major Total S. IOC , which have partly combined their assets after Total agreed in December to purchase Total S.
Further gas and mineral projects are proposed including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine , with extensive exploration ongoing across the country.
The PNG government's long-term Vision and shorter-term policy documents, including the Budget and the Responsible Sustainable Development Strategy, emphasise the need for a more diverse economy, based upon sustainable industries and avoiding the effects of Dutch disease from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in Western Africa, undermining much of their agriculture sector, manufacturing and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects.
Measures have been taken to mitigate these effects, including through the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund , partly to stabilise revenue and expenditure flows, but much will depend upon the readiness to make real reforms to effective use of revenue, tackling rampant corruption and empowering households and businesses to access markets, services and develop a more buoyant economy, with lower costs, especially for small to medium-size enterprises.
One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered.
The Institute of National Affairs, a PNG independent policy think tank, provides a report on the business and investment environment of Papua New Guinea every five years, based upon a survey of large and small, local and overseas companies, highlighting law and order problems and corruption, as the worst impediments, followed by the poor state of transport, power and communications infrastructure.
The PNG legislature has enacted laws in which a type of tenure called " customary land title " is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure.
Freehold title also known as fee simple can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser.
Unalienated land is owned under customary title by traditional landowners. The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another.
Many writers portray land as in the communal ownership of traditional clans; however, closer studies usually show that the smallest portions of land whose ownership cannot be further divided are held by the individual heads of extended families and their descendants or their descendants alone if they have recently died.
This is a matter of vital importance because a problem of economic development is identifying the membership of customary landowning groups and the owners.
Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners.
Customary property—usually land—cannot be devised by will. It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people.
The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' SABLs to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging—circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval.
Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament.
Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians , their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago.
There are also numerous people from other parts of the world now resident, including Chinese ,  Europeans, Australians, Indonesians, Filipinos, Polynesians, and Micronesians the last four belonging to the Austronesian family.
The geography and economy of Papua New Guinea are the main factors behind the low percentage. Papua New Guinea has an urbanisation rate of 2.
According to Statista , here are the urban population percentages in Papua New Guinea from to The most widely spoken indigenous language is Enga , with about , speakers, followed by Melpa and Huli.
The primary lingua franca of the country is Tok Pisin commonly known in English as New Guinean Pidgin or Melanesian Pidgin , in which much of the debate in Parliament is conducted, many information campaigns and advertisements are presented, and a national weekly newspaper, Wantok , is published.
The only area where Tok Pisin is not prevalent is the southern region of Papua , where people often use the third official language, Hiri Motu.
Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which primarily uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the indigenous language in outlying villages.
With an average of only 7, speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu.
Life expectancy in Papua New Guinea at birth was 64 years for men in and 68 for women. Government expenditure health in accounted for 9.
The maternal mortality rate per , births for Papua New Guinea was This is compared with The under-5 mortality rate, per 1, births is 69 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under-5s' mortality is In Papua New Guinea, the number of midwives per 1, live births is 1 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in Citizen population in Papua New Guinea by religion, based on the census .
The government and judiciary uphold the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted.
The census found that Virtually no respondent identified as being nonreligious. Religious syncretism is high, with many citizens combining their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices.
There are approximately 2, Muslims in the country. The majority belong to the Sunni group, while a small number are Ahmadi.
Non-traditional Christian churches and non-Christian religious groups are active throughout the country. Traditional religions are often animist.
Some also tend to have elements of veneration of the dead , though generalisation is suspect given the extreme heterogeneity of Melanesian societies.
Prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in masalai , or evil spirits, which are blamed for "poisoning" people, causing calamity and death, and the practice of puripuri sorcery.
It is estimated that more than a thousand cultural groups exist in Papua New Guinea. Because of this diversity, many styles of cultural expression have emerged.
Each group has created its own expressive forms in art, dance, weaponry, costumes, singing, music, architecture and much more. Most of these cultural groups have their own language.
People typically live in villages that rely on subsistence farming. In some areas people hunt and collect wild plants such as yam roots and karuka to supplement their diets.
Those who become skilled at hunting, farming and fishing earn a great deal of respect. On the Sepik river, there is a tradition of wood carving , often in the form of plants or animals, representing ancestor spirits.
Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in This tradition is still present in local customs.
In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells  as a bride price.
In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money , pigs, cassowaries or cash. Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry.
People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". They paint themselves and dress up with feathers , pearls and animal skins to represent birds, trees or mountain spirits.
Sometimes an important event, such as a legendary battle, is enacted at such a musical festival. The country, however, has no elements inscribed yet in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists , despite having one of the widest array of intangible cultural heritage elements in the world.
Sport is an important part of Papua New Guinean culture and rugby league is by far the most popular sport.
Many Papua New Guineans have become instant celebrities by representing their country or playing in an overseas professional league. Even Australian rugby league players who have played in the annual State of Origin series , which is celebrated feverishly every year in PNG, are among the most well-known people throughout the nation.
State of Origin is a highlight of the year for most Papua New Guineans, although the support is so passionate that many people have died over the years in violent clashes supporting their team.
Although not as popular, Australian rules football is more significant in another way, as the national team is ranked second, only after Australia.
Other major sports which have a part in the Papua New Guinea sporting landscape are association football , rugby union , basketball and, in eastern Papua, cricket.
The capital city, Port Moresby, hosted the Pacific Games in A large proportion of the population is illiterate ,  with women predominating in this area.
The four other universities which were once colleges were established recently after gaining government recognition. Papua New Guinea's National Vision was adopted in This has led to the establishment of the Research, Science and Technology Council.
At its gathering in November , the Council re-emphasised the need to focus on sustainable development through science and technology.
Vision 's medium-term priorities are: . Nine out of ten scientific publications from Papua New Guinea focused on immunology, genetics, biotechnology and microbiology.
Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland.
Forestry is an important economic resource for Papua New Guinea but the industry uses low and semi-intensive technological inputs. As a result, product ranges are limited to sawed timber, veneer, plywood, block board, moulding, poles and posts and wood chips.
Only a few limited finished products are exported. Lack of automated machinery, coupled with inadequately trained local technical personnel, are some of the obstacles to introducing automated machinery and design.
Policy-makers need to turn their attention to eliminating these barriers, in order for forestry to make a more efficient and sustainable contribution to national economic development.
In Papua New Guinea, renewable energy sources represent two-thirds of the total electricity supply. Since its inception in , the programme has developed a master's programme in renewable energy management at the University of Papua New Guinea and helped to establish a Centre of Renewable Energy at the same university.
The programme resulted from the signing of an agreement in February between the European Union and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.
Transport in Papua New Guinea is heavily limited by the country's mountainous terrain. Airplanes made it possible to open up the country during its early colonial period.
Even today the two largest cities, Port Moresby and Lae , are only directly connected by planes. Port Moresby is not linked by road to any of the other major towns, and many remote villages can only be reached by light aircraft or on foot.
In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has airstrips, most of which are unpaved. This article incorporates text from a free content work.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in the western Pacific. National emblem. Main article: History of Papua New Guinea.
Main article: Politics of Papua New Guinea. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
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|ENGLAND RUГЏLAND FUГЏBALL||Mula Geld|
|Г¤nderungs-Optionen||Oktober Dieses Werk darf von dir verbreitet werden — vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden neu zusammengestellt werden — abgewandelt und bearbeitet werden Zu den folgenden Bedingungen: Namensnennung — Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden. Aus Wiktionary, dem freien Wörterbuch. Beschreibung Mh winkerflaggenalphabet n. Quelle der Datei. Wetten Bundesliga Tipps Kernkraftwerk Druckwasserreaktor n. Martin Hawlisch User:LosHawlos.|